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    从西藏佛教传统香巴拉神话之时轮金刚曼陀罗探讨希尔顿小说《消失的地平线》
     
    [ 作者: 林久渊   来自:硕博文库   已阅:6388   时间:2006-9-26   录入:gaoshentao


    【资料形态】硕博文库|中国台湾
    【文献属性】[台湾]静宜大学,英国语文学系研究所,2005年度,硕士学位论文
    【文章标题】从西藏佛教传统香巴拉神话之时轮金刚曼陀罗探讨希尔顿小说《消失的地平线》
    【英文标题】Reading the Tibetan Buddhist Kalachakra Mandala in James Hilton’s Lost Horizon
    【文章作者】林久渊
    【指导教师】海柏
    【文章页数】98 页

    【中文关键词】金刚乘|般若|密续|曼陀罗|时轮金刚|香格里拉|香巴拉

    【英文关键词】The Wheel of Time ; Vajrayana ; Prajna ;Tantra ; Mandala ; ShangriLa ; Shambhala ; Kalachakra



    【中文摘要】本论文主要探讨英国作家希尔顿小说《消失的地平线》中的西藏香巴拉传说及时轮金刚密续。全文以时轮金刚密续的基本概念作为主轴,藉由时轮曼陀罗的基本形构与希尔顿小说人物的主要个人特质的关连性,探讨展现在希尔顿小说叙事中的阴阳平衡及对称关系。
        作者在小说中安排了藏传佛教传统的思想,但扭曲了女性神祇在藏传佛教中扮演的重要角色,内容呈现了以女性化身存在的阴性力量受到书写的压迫,人格化的阴阳力量因此失衡,一如地平线的阴阳平衡消失殆尽,成为本论文探讨希尔顿小说与藏传佛教传统精神之间的重新对比与整合的关键。满州女孩罗澄精通琴艺,她的琴声象征着流动在文字框架内外的生命律动,由于不谙英文,她成为沉默的女性角色并具有指标作用,一方面代表着女性及其力量受制而失去文字的表达能力,一方面则代表着阴性力量退而隐藏在文字背后,以沉默的方式指引她的读者重新检视阴阳平衡的自然法则。
        本论文分为五个章节,第一章介绍贯穿全文的西藏传统香巴拉神话及时轮金刚密续概念,藉由香格里拉故事与香巴拉神话的关连性勾勒出东西方文化观点在认知人间净土概念上的差异。第二章主要为心灵转化启程,以康威一行四人正式踏入香格里拉境内做为起点,个人信念的转折则代表着心灵上旧有概念的死亡与新概念的再生,成为心灵转化、提升的关键点,文中人物鲜明的个人特质代表着自然元素,垂直迭砌出时轮金刚曼陀罗的立体层次,并象征着不同的心灵转化阶段。第三章着重在藉由密续的阴性特质发掘潜藏在小说中阴性力量,探讨人格化的她在小说中如何受到阳性力量的边缘化、压制作用,以此桥接希尔顿个人与读者在心灵转化中失落的片段,重新塑造阴阳平衡的关系。第四章进入个人内在神性趋于平面整合的阶段,藉由曼陀罗内部图像与五方佛神圣本质,表达人格化与神格化的自然元素皆源自于最高力量(Supreme Being)的阴阳合一。第五章重新探索小说书名对于心灵转化的意涵,透过西藏佛教传统概念应用在文学作品解读的过程,同时移除在作者与读者心灵转化之旅的窒碍,完成内心与外在世界交互作用的整体感

    【英文摘要】This thesis aims to explore the relationship between the teaching of the Tibetan Buddhist Kalachakra in the Shambhala myth and James Hilton’s novel Lost Horizon. This reading of the Kalachakra Tantric concept in Hilton’s Lost Horizon shows that the characters in the novel manifest the cardinal elements that are represented by the spirit and body of the Kalachakra mandala. A distinctive teaching of Tantrism is the union of the masculine and feminine principle; therefore, a holistic reading replaces the loss of the feminine element in Hilton’s Lost Horizon.
    Hilton inclines the cultural aspect of his novel toward Tibetan Buddhist philosophy but distorts the importance of feminine energy in Tibetan Buddhism. His patriarchal writing has blurred the image of a unitary relationship in the Tantric mind and suppressed the female voice. It is found in this paper how the feminine force is reconstituted to coincide with masculine benevolent power to complete the spiritual transformation in a symmetrical relationship of human and cosmos. The Manchu girl LoTsen in the novel is proficient in playing musical instruments. Her melodies symbolize the life rhythms, which are dynamic and free flowing beyond the order of words. Mainly because she cannot speak English, she becomes the silent female character in the novel and indicative of suppressed female power. Her silence has two significances: it may represent the weakness of the female voice under the male dominance. Or, it may reflect that female power is hidden and intangible behind or underneath the patriarchal system. Through silence, this powerful female figure leads readers to review the unitary principle of male and female in both the human body and the cosmic order.
    This paper is divided into five chapters. Chapter One introduces the Shambhala myth of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition and the primary concept of the Kalachakra Tantra. How different visions are held by East and West toward the utopian place and contrast in their interpretations of ShangriLa and Shambhala are discussed. Chapter Two begins with the journey of spiritual transformation. The novel’s characters Conway, Barnard, Brinklow, and Mallinson hold diverse beliefs on entering ShangriLa and confront the trials of one’s life cycle in mind and body. The death of old beliefs and regeneration of new beliefs are key factors to cause the spiritual transformation. Their characteristics personalize the aggregates in the body of human and nature and also represent the different levels of spirituality. In Chapter Three, there is a discussion of the feminine force unfolding in the supplementary principles of Tantric philosophy. The analysis aims to reconstruct the complete image of the feminine force and to find a balance of male and female concepts that Hilton negates or neglects in Lost Horizon. Chapter Four analyses the reintegration of the Buddha nature in human mind. Unifying the mythic diagram of the inner Kalachakra mandala with the Five Buddhas, the personification and deifying elements are collected in the characters arranged in an order derived from the Supreme Being beyond the union of dual concepts. In Chapter Five, I conclude with a focus on the significance of the title of Lost Horizon. By reading the Tibetan Buddhist philosophy in Lost Horizon, readers remove the obstructions to spiritual transformation and pass through the tunnel of spiritual transformation to enlightenment.


    【论文目次】

    Chinese Abstracti
    English Abstractiii
    Acknowledgementvi
    Chapter One: Introduction1
    Utopian Vision in East and West1
    Religious Approach to the Eastern Utopia2
    The Wars for Mind4
    The Connection between ShangriLa and Shambhala6
    Tibetan Myth, Shambhala7
    The Kalachakra11
    Making Use of the Kalachakra mandala14
    Chapter Two: The Initiation to Spiritual Transformation19
    Eliminating the Fear to Death with the Vision of Permanent Life20
    Going through Transformation with Mental Death20
    Primordial Image of Sacred Space21
    Dakini and Daka as Messengers24
    First Layer: Belief30
    Second Layer: Feeling37
    Third Layer: Perception39
    Fourth Layer: Forms40
    Fifth Layer: Consciousness42
    Chapter Three: Unfolding the Essence of Hidden Feminine Power47
    The Union of the Masculine Principle and Female Principle Embodied in Kalachakra Tantra48
    Geographical Features/Nature in ShangriLa49
    Kalachakra Tantra as the Female Annutarayoga in Shambhala50
    Male View of Females/Femininity52
    Male and Female Imbalance in Lost Horizon53
    Etymological Analysis of “Lama”54
    The Absence of Female Identity 56
    The High Lama: A Combination of Male and Female Energies59
    Chapter Four: Unifying Diverse Elements as Reintegration62
    Basic Elements of the Kalachakra Mandala62
    The Cardinal Elements Characterized in Lost Horizon65
    Colors Associated with Inner Divinities66
    Panch Buddhas (Five Buddhas/Wisdom)68
    Chapter Five: Conclusion78 


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